In June 2010, the State Department announced a new policy to issue passports in a person’s current gender when either a previous passport or other personal documentation presented by an applicant reflects a different gender.
Under the new policy, a transgender person can obtain a passport reflecting his or her current gender by submitting a certification from a physician confirming that he or she has had appropriate clinical treatment for gender transition. There is no surgical requirement.
To obtain a passport that reflects your gender identity, you will to have had clinical treatment determined by your doctor to be appropriate in your case to facilitate gender transition. It does not matter whether or not you have previously obtained a passport listing another gender.